Associated with Derrida and the so-called Yale school of Paul de Man, Harold Bloom, Hillis Miller and Geoffrey Hartman. Deconstructionism has had more of an impact on philosophy and literary theory in Continental Europe, but its influence has been felt widely. It can be traced back to Nietzsche but the problem with explaining or understanding it is that its proponents often insist that there is no deconstructionist method; that is, it is not just another systematic approach to be applied that can be defined by explicit steps or principles. However, the "deconstructionist approach" tends to involve close reading, looking for presuppositions that the author relies on implicitly but does not argue for or explain, and locating multiple interpretations of texts, particularly those that may contradict or be entirely opposed to others, rather than allowing one reading of the text to be privileged. It also asks what the text does not include or describe; i.e. what has been explicitly or implicitly excluded from it in order to make the points or arguments therein.